Microwave imaging (MI) is based on recovering dielectric properties (permittivity and conductivity) of materials. Over the last two decades, MI has attracted increasing interests in biomedical applications, in particular, for breast cancer...
The study of twin primes gives rise to several famously difficult problems in number theory--in fact, we still cannot definitively say whether there are infinitely many twin primes. In this work, we consider a related problem, namely: What is the...
In this thesis we look at several problems that lie in the intersection between combinatorial and multiplicative number theory. A common theme of many of these problems are estimates for and properties of the smooth numbers, those integers not...
The ionosphere is the primary source for heavy ions which are ubiquitous in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Low-altitude energization in the auroral ionosphere results in bulk heating and transverse acceleration of ions, which begin to upwell and/or...
I. Intermolecular C-S Bond Forming Reactions
The relatively small number of efficient C-S bond forming reactions in the literature prompted an investigation into the synthesis of allylic thioethers. The technology that we developed allowed us, in...
NAD (Coenzyme) -- Metabolism. Nicotinamide -- Mechanism of action. Genetic regulation. Nicotinamide-beta-riboside.
NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a consumed substrate of multiple signaling enzymes including the sirtuins, a family of protein lysine deacetylases shown to regulate longevity in a wide array of organisms. We have...
This thesis presents two-fluid simulations of forced magnetic reconnection with finite electron inertia in two and three dimensional periodic systems. Reconnection in the system is driven by a spatially localized forcing function, added to the ion...
Swarming motility is a flagella-dependent surface motility, and is also a form of bacterial group behavior. Similar to its counterpart biofilm formation, our understanding of swarming motility has been hampered by its complex set of requirements...
In this thesis, we characterize and enumerate the permutations which are realized by the orbits of signed shifts, a family of discrete dynamical systems on words. The permutations, which are called patterns of the signed shifts, are given by the...
This thesis describes the synthesis of sulfobetaines having the general structure $\rm RN\sp{+}(CH\sb3)\sb2(CH\sb2)\sb{x}SO\sb{3\sp{-}}$ as novel inhibitors of squalene synthase. Squalene synthase reductively couples two molecules of farnesyl...
Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into membrane-enclosed organelles. Genetic screens and reconstituted biochemical assays have revealed that intracellular protein trafficking is mediated by a conserved mechanism of vesicle budding, transport,...
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) balance self-renewal with the continuous production of the suitable numbers of lineage-restricted progenitor cells. In this work we demonstrate that the Mixed lineage leukemia 1 (Mll1) gene is essential for this...
Three-dimensional imaging in medicine -- Mathematical models. ; Stereoencephalotomy.
In the past, clinicians skilled at image-guided neurosurgery have relied solely on pre-operative scans for their navigational information. Often in the course of surgery, tissue is purposely retracted/resected or inadvertently moved resulting in a...
This research has established feasibility of surface temperature characterization using ruby fluorescence. Study was performed in pin-on-disk geometry, with balls made of different plastics sliding against the sapphire disk. Fluorescence signal was...
Statement of the problem. Drug-eluting stents (DES) dramatically reduce the incidence of coronary restenosis, a frequent complication of percutaneous coronary interventions in the treatment of obstructive arterial diseases. However, they have been...
ISGylation is a type 1 interferon-regulated process that involves conjugation of ISG15, an ubiquitin-like protein, to target proteins. This posttranslational modification is reversed by a deubiquitinase known as UBP43 or USP18. UBP43 is deregulated...
Many protocols for adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) include preparative conditioning strategies to deplete host lymphocytes prior to T cell infusion. Total body irradiation and high-dose chemotherapy regimens not only relieve immunosuppression, but...
Molecular optical imaging in vivo has potential for functional assessment of tumor tissue at the cellular and subcellular level. Advances in biological understanding of genomics and proteomics have increased the knowledge of possible cellular...
PDZ protein-protein interaction domains recognize short linear motif (SLiM) sequences typically at the extreme C-terminus of a target protein. These domains often act as scaffolds, connecting target proteins to additional interaction and catalytic...
Annual screening mammograms are recommended for all women above 40 years of age for early detection of breast cancer, and are known to improve cancer mortality rates. However, mammography is hampered by low sensitivity and a high rate of false...
Temperature has powerful effects on all scales of biological organization from biochemical reactions to ecosystem processes. Despite the well-appreciated influence and thorough understanding of the physiological and population consequences of...
In this thesis, we consider several problems relating to cyclic subgroups of the group [mathematical equation]. Each element of [mathematical equation] has a unique representative in one of the two intervals [mathematical equation] and...
Through a series of case studies, signal processing and statistical tools, analyses of dynamic sea ice processes of drift, deformation, and ice pack expansion and decay are investigated for the Weddell Sea region during 1992. Cavitating fluid (CAV)...
Electric generators -- Windings. Electric inductors -- Design and construction -- Mathematical models. Electric current converters -- Design and construction -- Mathematical models. Energy dissipation -- Mathematical models.
Magnetic components for high-frequency power conversion applications can have significant losses that compromise the performance of the converter. In particular, winding losses can be large due to high-frequency effects that are difficult to model...
Medical imaging methods have become increasingly important in diagnosing diseases and assisting therapeutic treatment. In particular, early detection of breast cancer is considered as a critical factor in reducing the mortality rate of women....
Earlier work has suggested that various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders may result in characteristic spatial patterns in brain activation, potentially allowing their detection from maps of brain activity under different conditions....
Coherent states. Quantum field theory. Nonlinear theories.
In this thesis we study the properties of time-dependent, nontopological configurations and their effect on the macroscopic properties of a system described by a nonlinear field theory. These structures seem to be ubiquitous in relativistic field...
Boundary integral methods have long been used to solve boundary value problems for elliptic partial differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients, since they have several numerical advantages over conventional volume discretization....