For ordinary knots in R 3 , there are no degree one Vassiliev invariants. For virtual knots, however, the space of degree one Vassiliev invariants is infinite dimensional. We introduce a sequence of three degree one Vassiliev invariants of virtual...
Genetic polymorphisms. Metalloproteinases -- Genetic aspects. Metalloproteinases -- Pathophysiology. Breast -- Cancer -- Genetic aspects. Carcinogenesis.
Extra cellular matrix (ECM) provides structural support for the body and also contributes to cell proliferation and migration. Modification ECM is an important part of normal physiology, and integral to a variety of pathologies including tumor...
Metalloproteinases -- Genetic aspects. ; Metalloproteinases -- Pathophysiology. ; Cellular signal transduction. ; Breast -- Cancer -- Genetic aspects. ; Protein kinases -- Genetic aspects. ; Extracellular matrix proteins. ; Extracellular...
Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression is controlled by the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway(s) via the activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and polyoma enhancing activity-3/E26 virus (PEA3/ETS) transcription factors through...
We have a limited understanding of how an opinion is originated, how an opinion and information supporting and explaining it gets conveyed, and how the communicated opinion is perceived and processed by others. One direction of current research...
We describe a set of natural image statistics that are built upon two multi-scale image decompositions, the quadrature mirror filter pyramid decomposition and the local angular harmonic decomposition. These image statistics consist of first- and...
Diffuse optical imaging techniques can be combined with standard imaging technologies such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to allow measurement of spectroscopic signals pertaining to the molecular components of...
The focus of this thesis is the study of nuclearity and exactness for groupoid crossed product C*-algebras. In particular, we present generalizations of two well-known facts from group dynamical systems and crossed products to the groupoid setting....
Proteins are ubiquitous in cells and are essential to a wide range of biological processes. Since existing proteins occupy only a small portion of the space of possible amino acid composition, understanding their sequence-structure-function...
In this thesis, we characterize and enumerate the permutations which are realized by the orbits of signed shifts, a family of discrete dynamical systems on words. The permutations, which are called patterns of the signed shifts, are given by the...
In this thesis we study 1=k-geodesics, those closed geodesics that minimize on any subinterval of length L=k, where L is the length of the geodesic. These curves arise as critical points of the uniform energy, a function introduced in Morse theory...
The performance of machine learning algorithms largely depends on data representation. As a critical step in machine learning, representation learning (feature learning) learns a transformation of training data to give a new representation that can...
This thesis investigates a notion of Turing reducibility introduced by Winkler [8] that is total on all computably enumerable oracles. Groszek and Weber show in [7] that this is a new notion of reducibility and it is not transitive. They give su...
Partially ordered sets and permutations are combinatorial structures having vast applications in theoretical computer science. In this thesis, we study various computational and algorithmic problems related to these structures. The first chapter of...
The ionosphere is the primary source for heavy ions which are ubiquitous in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Low-altitude energization in the auroral ionosphere results in bulk heating and transverse acceleration of ions, which begin to upwell and/or...
Dendritic cells. Biological response modifiers. Immune response -- Regulation. T cells. CD antigens. Dendritic Cells -- Immunology. Receptors
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that regulate antigen-specific T cell activation or tolerance. The maturation state of DCs is critical since immature DCs are believed to induce T cell tolerance whereas mature...
In this thesis I present analyses of optical and X-ray data of early-type galaxies in nearby rich clusters as part of the NOAO Fundamental Plane Survey. Spectroscopic parameters, including linestrengths and velocity dispersions are measured for...
Forest ecology -- Northeastern States. ; Forest canopy ecology -- Northeastern States. ; Forest dynamics -- Northeastern States.
In closed-canopy forests, changes in the relative abundance of tree species due to major disturbance or to its absence are thought to be governed principally by differences among component species in the performance of juveniles. However, few...
This thesis presents technologies for the design, fabrication, operation, and control of electrostatic MEMS micro-robots. It describes prototype micro-robots, with dimensions of 60 Î¼m by 250 Î¼m by 10 Î¼m, that are capable of controllable...
A polynomial is a product of distinct cyclotomic polynomials if and only if it is a divisor over [Special characters omitted.] [x ] of xn - 1 for some positive integer n. In this thesis, we will examine two natural questions concerning the divisors...
This thesis investigates the embedding theory of orders in central simple algebras, placing a particular emphasis on the role that the phenomenon known as selectivity plays in the theory. Although the notion of selectivity is completely algebraic,...
Despite great progress in object recognition techniques, there is a mismatch between traditional approaches and the characteristics of real world vision tasks. We highlight in particular, three closely related areas of mismatch: i) recognition...
As the visual effect and movie industries are striving for realism and high fidelity images, physically based lighting, global illumination, realistic materials, and highly tessellated geometry are gradually accepted and used in movie and game...
Thermodynamics, and the classic balance between entropy and enthalpy, provides a proverbial zoo of exotic phase behaviour that chemists can harness to create new materials out of simple liquids and polymers. The diversity of self-assembling...
The purpose of this thesis is to describe methods for detecting hidden crevasses on glaciers in Polar regions. Crevasses form in ice sheets as a result of forces imposed upon the brittle ice. The crevasses are hidden from view by bridges of soft...
Si/SiGe quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (qubits) as a result of the reduced spin-orbit coupling as well as the Si isotopes with zero nuclear spin. Meanwhile qubit readout is a challenge related to...
This thesis contains material relating to two separate subjects. The first section determines when the C*-algebra affiliated to a directed graph has continuous trace. We use groupoid methods and the focus is on producing conditions on a graph that...
Despite the array of targeted therapeutics that currently exist to combat breast cancer, disease progression leading to metastasis, and tumor recurrence still remains a significant clinical challenge. Efforts to identify novel pathways and...
Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypic neurotrophin, is well characterized for its pro-survival and growth effects in sympathetic and sensory neurons. Acting as a target-derived factor, NGF regulates the maturation of innervating neurons, and...
Gene set testing has become a critical tool for interpreting the results of high-throughput genomic experiments. Despite the development of robust statistical methods and extensive gene set collections, however, the results from gene set testing...
In this thesis, we consider several problems relating to cyclic subgroups of the group [mathematical equation]. Each element of [mathematical equation] has a unique representative in one of the two intervals [mathematical equation] and...
A fundamental question in decision neuroscience is how cognitive processes underlying decision-making give rise to efficient decisions, especially in complex situations with multiple choice options, and each option consisting of multiple attributes...
In Chapter 2 we look at the distribution of permutation statistics in the context of pattern-avoiding permutations. The first part of this chapter deals with a recursively defined bijection of Robertson [37] between 123- and 132-avoiding...
The multisubunit eukaryotic Mediator complex integrates diverse positive and negative gene regulatory signals and transmits them to the core transcription machinery. It is also involved in chromatin structure related epigenetic silencing through...
Robustness to genetic perturbations is a fundamental property of all living things. The genetic code is degenerate, RNA secondary structure is robust to sequence changes, and protein structure is robust to amino acid substitutions. Complex systems...
ID proteins are naturally occurring dominant negative HLH-transcription factors that are highly expressed during development but generally not expressed in adult tissue except for selected cell types and some stem cells. Also, aberrant expression...