As the visual effect and movie industries are striving for realism and high fidelity images, physically based lighting, global illumination, realistic materials, and highly tessellated geometry are gradually accepted and used in movie and game...
Thermodynamics, and the classic balance between entropy and enthalpy, provides a proverbial zoo of exotic phase behaviour that chemists can harness to create new materials out of simple liquids and polymers. The diversity of self-assembling...
We have a limited understanding of how an opinion is originated, how an opinion and information supporting and explaining it gets conveyed, and how the communicated opinion is perceived and processed by others. One direction of current research...
The purpose of this thesis is to describe methods for detecting hidden crevasses on glaciers in Polar regions. Crevasses form in ice sheets as a result of forces imposed upon the brittle ice. The crevasses are hidden from view by bridges of soft...
Si/SiGe quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (qubits) as a result of the reduced spin-orbit coupling as well as the Si isotopes with zero nuclear spin. Meanwhile qubit readout is a challenge related to...
This thesis contains material relating to two separate subjects. The first section determines when the C*-algebra affiliated to a directed graph has continuous trace. We use groupoid methods and the focus is on producing conditions on a graph that...
Despite the array of targeted therapeutics that currently exist to combat breast cancer, disease progression leading to metastasis, and tumor recurrence still remains a significant clinical challenge. Efforts to identify novel pathways and...
Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypic neurotrophin, is well characterized for its pro-survival and growth effects in sympathetic and sensory neurons. Acting as a target-derived factor, NGF regulates the maturation of innervating neurons, and...
Diffuse optical imaging techniques can be combined with standard imaging technologies such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to allow measurement of spectroscopic signals pertaining to the molecular components of...
The focus of this thesis is the study of nuclearity and exactness for groupoid crossed product C*-algebras. In particular, we present generalizations of two well-known facts from group dynamical systems and crossed products to the groupoid setting....
Gene set testing has become a critical tool for interpreting the results of high-throughput genomic experiments. Despite the development of robust statistical methods and extensive gene set collections, however, the results from gene set testing...
In this thesis, we consider several problems relating to cyclic subgroups of the group [mathematical equation]. Each element of [mathematical equation] has a unique representative in one of the two intervals [mathematical equation] and...
Proteins are ubiquitous in cells and are essential to a wide range of biological processes. Since existing proteins occupy only a small portion of the space of possible amino acid composition, understanding their sequence-structure-function...
In this thesis, we characterize and enumerate the permutations which are realized by the orbits of signed shifts, a family of discrete dynamical systems on words. The permutations, which are called patterns of the signed shifts, are given by the...
A fundamental question in decision neuroscience is how cognitive processes underlying decision-making give rise to efficient decisions, especially in complex situations with multiple choice options, and each option consisting of multiple attributes...
In Chapter 2 we look at the distribution of permutation statistics in the context of pattern-avoiding permutations. The first part of this chapter deals with a recursively defined bijection of Robertson [37] between 123- and 132-avoiding...
The multisubunit eukaryotic Mediator complex integrates diverse positive and negative gene regulatory signals and transmits them to the core transcription machinery. It is also involved in chromatin structure related epigenetic silencing through...
Robustness to genetic perturbations is a fundamental property of all living things. The genetic code is degenerate, RNA secondary structure is robust to sequence changes, and protein structure is robust to amino acid substitutions. Complex systems...
ID proteins are naturally occurring dominant negative HLH-transcription factors that are highly expressed during development but generally not expressed in adult tissue except for selected cell types and some stem cells. Also, aberrant expression...
Circadian rhythms. Proteins -- Synthesis -- Effect of light on. Genetic regulation. Neurospora crassa -- Reproduction -- Effect of light on. Neurospora crassa -- Genetics.
To understand how the circadian clock can temporally organize a cell, the biochemical characterization of a clock protein, FRQ, was initiated in Neurospora crassa using immunochemical techniques. FRQ accumulated in constant light to maximum levels...
Operating systems and low-level applications are usually written in languages like C and assembly, which provide access to low-level abstractions. These languages have unsafe type systems that allow many bugs to slip by programmers. For example, in...
Polynomials. Finite fields (Algebra). Algebraic functions. Number theory.
The ring of univariate polynomials over a finite field shares many foundational arithmetic properties with the ring of rational integers. This similarity makes it possible for many problems in elementary number theory to be translated 'through the...
APETALA3 ( AP3 ) and PISTILLATA ( PI ) are floral organ identity genes that are necessary and sufficient for petal and stamen development. Surprisingly little is known about molecular mechanisms by which AP3 and PI proteins direct floral organ...
Coherent states. Quantum field theory. Nonlinear theories.
In this thesis we study the properties of time-dependent, nontopological configurations and their effect on the macroscopic properties of a system described by a nonlinear field theory. These structures seem to be ubiquitous in relativistic field...
While Cherenkov emission was discovered more than eighty years ago, the potential applications of imaging this during radiation therapy have just recently been explored. With approximately half of all cancer patients being treated by radiation at...