Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 8,900 genetic variants, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with hundreds of human traits and diseases, which define risk-associated loci (Hindorff et al., 2012 ...
The coordination and coupling of the several steps in mRNA biogenesis helps to ensure proper regulation of gene expression. The DEAD-box helicase Dbp5/Rat8 is an essential mRNA export factor that has also been implicated in other steps of mRNA...
How the genome is shaped directly influences how it is expressed. In fact, the genome is organized at many different levels, each imparting specific regulation over transcription. Fundamental principles regulating genome organization are poorly...
RNA binding proteins are fundamental components of crucial biological processes in all domains of life. The development of techniques to study RNA binding protein complexes is, therefore, broadly impactful. I employed multiple genome-wide...
Light scattering from tissue originates from the fluctuations in intra-cellular and extra-cellular components, so it is possible that macroscopic scattering spectroscopy could be used to quantify sub-microscopic structures. Both electron microscopy...
Relativity (Physics). ; Anisotropy -- Mathematical models. ; Einstein field equations. ; Newtonian fluids. ; Astrophysics.
We study the effects of anisotropic pressure on the properties of spherically symmetric, gravitationally bound spheres. We consider the full general-relativistic and Newtonian treatment of this problem and obtain exact solutions for various forms...
Hypervelocity stars are stars ejected from the center of the Milky Way, never to return. Since first discovered in 2005, hypervelocity stars have greatly increased our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics at the Galactic Center. In this...
This thesis comprises two separate but related studies, dealing with two strongly interacting nanoscale systems on the border between the quantum and classical domains. In Part 1, we use a Born-Markov approximated master equation approach to study...
Si-based quantum devices, including Si/SiGe quantum dots (QD), are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (quits), which are a potential platform for quantum information processing [1]. Meanwhile, qubit readout remains a challenging task...
Quantum dots. Heterostructures. Metal oxide semiconductors -- Design and construction. Silicon oxide. Electron gas. Ohmic contacts. Microelectronics -- Technological innovations.
Solid-state approaches to quantum computing include quantum dot qubit implementations based on the Loss-DiVincenzo proposal. Prior work in GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) materials serves as a proving ground for device designs that can be...
For a long-lived metastable system, the decay of the survival probability is typically exponential. However, deviations are known to exist at short times (the quantum Zeno effect) and at long times (algebraic tails in classical hydrodynamic...
'The control of waves using periodic structures is crucial for modern optical, electromagnetic and acoustic devices such as diffraction gratings, filters, photonic crystals, solar cells, sensors, and absorbers. We present a high-order accurate...
Casimir effect. Zero-point field. Electric conductivity. Quantum electrodynamics.
The Casimir force arises from an alteration of boundary condition in vacuum and is often regarded as a manifestation of quantum zero point energy. Considerable progress has been made in the last decade with an impressive achievement of experimental...
Molecular imaging of cancer features is a critical part of advancing better tools for oncology management and drug discovery, yet it is still evolving as a useful tool. Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography (FT) is one approach to molecular imaging, used...
In this thesis, the dynamics of long-lived, time-dependent, coherent field configurations, known as oscillons, are investigated in the presence of an expanding background. In a (1+1)-dimensional expanding spacetime, scalar-field oscillon lifetimes...
In this work we investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. We begin by carrying out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector...
Little is known about the emergence of life from nonliving precursors. A key missing- piece is the origin of homochirality: nearly all life is characterized by exclusively dextrorotary sugars and levorotary amino acids. The research presented in...
Breast -- Cancer -- Tomography. Near infrared spectroscopy. Breast -- Cancer -- Imaging. Breast -- Cancer -- Diagnosis.
Near-infrared (NIR) light provides potential for a new approach to non-invasive detection, diagnosis and clinical management of breast cancer. Using NIR spectroscopic imaging techniques, the physiological information about breast tissue composition...
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for use in biomedical applications as remote sensors of biophysical properties, thermal therapy agents, and detectors of specific biomolecules. Many approaches have been used to model magnetic...
Phase transitions occur in such diverse and important systems as ferromagnets, liquid crystals and the early Universe. The dynamics of phase transitions such as these have been studied for decades, but the analytical models still need a great deal...
We provide a theoretical model for a design involving a dc voltage biased Josephson junction (JJ) that strongly drives a high quality factor microwave cavity via the ac Josephson effect. We explore the rich classical dynamics of the resultant...
The processes by which nonlinear physical systems approach thermal equilibrium is of great importance in many areas of science. Central to this is the mechanism by which energy is transferred between the many degrees of freedom comprising these...
Si/SiGe quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (qubits) as a result of the reduced spin-orbit coupling as well as the Si isotopes with zero nuclear spin. Meanwhile qubit readout is a challenge related to...
Experimental and theoretical aspects of macroscopic and mesoscopic elastic instability are investigated in this thesis. For the theoretical investigations we utilize a Lagrangian formulation of nonlinear continuum elasticity theory, the novel...
The radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) [1-3] has attracted significant interest as one of the fastest charge detectors known today. In this thesis, we show that by designing an on-chip superconducting LC matching network for the...
The thermodynamic properties of pure polymers and polymer mixtures have been investigated using the so-called Born-Green-Yvon (BGY) lattice theory. Previous results applied pure component pressure-volume-temperature ( PVT ) data in order to...
While Cherenkov emission was discovered more than eighty years ago, the potential applications of imaging this during radiation therapy have just recently been explored. With approximately half of all cancer patients being treated by radiation at...