The accelerated expansion of space in the Universe has been known for two decades. However, finding a plausible theory that describes this expansion is more difficult: Taking general relativity for granted requires us to stipulate the existence of...
Cosmic acceleration could be an effect of a ""dark energy"" fluid pervading the Universe. It could also be an indication that general relativity is not the correct theory of gravity at cosmological length scales. Unfortunately, observations of the...
Manifolds (Mathematics) Geodesics (Mathematics) Space and time.
We investigate weak and strong refocusing of light rays in a space-time and related concepts. A strongly causal space-time ( X^ n +1 , g ) is emphstrongly refocusing at x ∈ X if there is a point y ≠ x such that all null-geodesics through y pass...
Production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic materials is a potentially attractive way to meet sustainability, energy security, and environmental goals. However, the high cost of processing using current technology has thus far prevented...
Casimir effect. Zero-point field. Electric conductivity. Quantum electrodynamics.
The Casimir force arises from an alteration of boundary condition in vacuum and is often regarded as a manifestation of quantum zero point energy. Considerable progress has been made in the last decade with an impressive achievement of experimental...
This thesis comprises two separate but related studies, dealing with two strongly interacting nanoscale systems on the border between the quantum and classical domains. In Part 1, we use a Born-Markov approximated master equation approach to study...
We prove the existence of nontrivial multiparameter isospectral deformations of metrics on the classical compact simple Lie groups SO (n) (n = 9, n ≥11), Spin(n) (n = 9, n ≥11), SU (n) (n ≥7), and Sp (n) (n ≥5). The proof breaks into three...
While Cherenkov emission was discovered more than eighty years ago, the potential applications of imaging this during radiation therapy have just recently been explored. With approximately half of all cancer patients being treated by radiation at...
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for use in biomedical applications as remote sensors of biophysical properties, thermal therapy agents, and detectors of specific biomolecules. Many approaches have been used to model magnetic...
The brain is a vastly interconnected information processing network. In humans, this network supports the rich mental space at the root of the imagination and enables many flexible cognitive abilities such as scientific and artistic creativity. How...
Motivated by quantum mechanics and geometric optics, it is a long-standing problem whether the length spectrum of a compact Riemannian manifold can be recovered from its Laplace spectrum. One route to proving that the length spectrum depends on the...
Partially ordered sets and permutations are combinatorial structures having vast applications in theoretical computer science. In this thesis, we study various computational and algorithmic problems related to these structures. The first chapter of...
Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD...
This research attempts to combine known methodology with new chemistry towards the preparation of extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The generation and Diels-Alder trapping of 1,7- and 2,6-naphthalene bisarynes was attempted for the...
Magnetic resonance imaging. ; Nuclear magnetic resonance.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides unique contrast reflecting the translational motion of water in its microscopic environment. This imaging modality has been shown to highlight infarcted regions within minutes after an...
Lowest order charged particle motion in the Earth''s magnetosphere can be explained using simple adiabatic theory. However, nonadiabatic theory is required to explain particle behavior in cases such as when the particle's gyroradius is large...
Chromium -- Toxicity testing. ; Glutathione. ; Vitamin C -- Physiological effect. ; Carcinogenesis. ; DNA damage.
Chromium(VI) is a human carcinogen and causes DNA damage following reduction by intracellular reductants. In order to explore the effects of intracellular reductants on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI), the roles of glutathione and ascorbate in...
RUNX1 is a transcription factor regulating hematopoietic development. Study of the RUNX1 structure revealed two functional domains. The runt domain binds DNA and mediates interaction with CBFß. Sequences C terminal to the runt domain form the...