Thermodynamics, and the classic balance between entropy and enthalpy, provides a proverbial zoo of exotic phase behaviour that chemists can harness to create new materials out of simple liquids and polymers. The diversity of self-assembling...
Electric generators -- Windings. Electric inductors -- Design and construction -- Mathematical models. Electric current converters -- Design and construction -- Mathematical models. Energy dissipation -- Mathematical models.
Magnetic components for high-frequency power conversion applications can have significant losses that compromise the performance of the converter. In particular, winding losses can be large due to high-frequency effects that are difficult to model...
Coherent states. Quantum field theory. Nonlinear theories.
In this thesis we study the properties of time-dependent, nontopological configurations and their effect on the macroscopic properties of a system described by a nonlinear field theory. These structures seem to be ubiquitous in relativistic field...
Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric...
While Cherenkov emission was discovered more than eighty years ago, the potential applications of imaging this during radiation therapy have just recently been explored. With approximately half of all cancer patients being treated by radiation at...
Despite all the efforts and progress in cancer research, cancer remains a devastating disease. After more than 120 years of research, immunotherapy provides a realistic hope to cure cancer. Several formats of immunotherapy, such as...
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for use in biomedical applications as remote sensors of biophysical properties, thermal therapy agents, and detectors of specific biomolecules. Many approaches have been used to model magnetic...
The accelerated expansion of space in the Universe has been known for two decades. However, finding a plausible theory that describes this expansion is more difficult: Taking general relativity for granted requires us to stipulate the existence of...
Whistler-mode chorus waves have recently drawn tremendous attention as an important mechanism for controlling the energetic electron flux in Earth’s radiation belt. This dissertation aims to answer questions about whistler-mode chorus waves, such...
Phase transitions occur in such diverse and important systems as ferromagnets, liquid crystals and the early Universe. The dynamics of phase transitions such as these have been studied for decades, but the analytical models still need a great deal...
Van Allen radiation belts -- Mathematical models. Electrons -- Diffusion -- Mathematical models. Magnetohydrodynamic waves -- Mathematical models.
It is becoming increasingly important to understand the dynamics of radiation belt energetic particles given their potentially hazardous effects on satellites and our ever-increasing dependence on those satellites. There is a need to determine...
Lowest order charged particle motion in the Earth''s magnetosphere can be explained using simple adiabatic theory. However, nonadiabatic theory is required to explain particle behavior in cases such as when the particle's gyroradius is large...
Safety in transportation systems is a global concern with millions of road accidents happening worldwide every year. Despite sophisticated advancement in automotive design and accident serverity reduction technologies, traffic fatalities continue...
Shape modeling is an important area in computer vision and medical imaging. Shape models have proved valuable in the tasks of object representation, recognition, and classification. This thesis focuses on shape models of 3D surfaces extracted from...
The radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) [1-3] has attracted significant interest as one of the fastest charge detectors known today. In this thesis, we show that by designing an on-chip superconducting LC matching network for the...
The main theme of this thesis is to investigate the origins of photosensitizer pharmacokinetic variability, how this pharmacokinetic variation affects photodynamic therapy (PDT), and to search for innovative strategies to reduce the...
Most theoretical and computational studies of turbulence in Navier-Stokes fluids and/or guiding-center plasmas have been carried out in the presence of spatially periodic boundary conditions. In view of the frequently-reproduced result that...
Motivated by the goal of investigating the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe, a study of dynamical aspects of nonlinear field-theoretical systems is performed. Symmetric and asymmetric double-well potentials in the...
Three-dimensional imaging in medicine -- Mathematical models. Diagnostic imaging -- Digital techniques. Brain -- Magnetic resonance imaging. Inverse problems (Differential equations).
An accurate registration between the preoperative images and the current surgical scene is critical to image-guided neurosurgery. However, during a neuro-surgical intervention, brain tissues shift and degrade the accuracy of the registration....
Bioinorganic chemistry is the study of metal in biological systems. While transition metals such as copper, iron and zinc are essential to all living organisms, they can also be extremely toxic. The same properties that make them necessary render...
The processes by which nonlinear physical systems approach thermal equilibrium is of great importance in many areas of science. Central to this is the mechanism by which energy is transferred between the many degrees of freedom comprising these...