Radio relics are extended regions of synchrotron radio emission that have been found in the outskirts of a few dozen galaxy clusters. Relics are often associated with clusters undergoing merger activity. They are not associated optically with a...
Coal combustion remains an important source of toxic metal emissions. Dilute concentrations and poor understanding of their chemistries hinders reduction of these emissions. This thesis examines the chemistry of the trace metals arsenic and mercury...
Bayesian nonparametric methods have become increasingly popular in machine learning for their ability to allow the data to determine model complexity. In particular, Bayesian nonparametric versions of common latent variable models can learn as...
Molecular optical imaging in vivo has potential for functional assessment of tumor tissue at the cellular and subcellular level. Advances in biological understanding of genomics and proteomics have increased the knowledge of possible cellular...
A new type of analytic expansion for use in stability calculations is presented and applied to the question of the stability of laminar solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. This leads in a natural way to a model of the transition from laminar...
The auroral zone is a rich source of natural radio emissions that can be observed in space and at ground-level. By studying these waves, scientists can gain insight into the plasma processes that generate them and use the near-Earth space...
Microwave spectroscopy. Imaging systems -- Design and construction. Diagnostic imaging -- Digital techniques. Breast -- Cancer -- Diagnosis. Microwave imaging in medicine.
Microwave spectroscopy has been investigated as a possible modality for breast imaging because of the significant contrast in electrical properties between normal and malignant tissue over the microwave spectrum. A liquid-coupled, non-contacting...
In the Firefighter Problem, a fire starts at a vertex of a graph, and in discrete time units, it spreads from burned vertices to their neighbors, unless they are protected by one of the f firefighters that are deployed every turn. Once burned or...
Magneto-spectroscopy is used to characterize the confinement properties of strain-induced quantum wires and dots. The wires and dots are low energy regions in an ordinary GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well that are formed when microscopic...
Optical tomography. ; Near infrared spectroscopy. ; Image analysis -- Mathematical models. ; Imaging systems -- Image quality -- Mathematical models. ; Image reconstruction -- Mathematical models. ; Least squares. Breast -- Tomography.
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has the potential to become a non-invasive and non-ionizing diagnostic imaging technique for breast cancer imaging. DOT uses near-infrared (NIR) light to illuminate the breast, generally through the use of fiber...
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for use in biomedical applications as remote sensors of biophysical properties, thermal therapy agents, and detectors of specific biomolecules. Many approaches have been used to model magnetic...
The fluxes of radiation belt electrons are highly variable, due to a competition between various acceleration, loss, and transport processes. Studies of any of the processes are equally important. My study focuses on electron-EMIC (electromagnetic...
Recent technological advances have fostered the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which consist of tiny, wireless, battery-powered nodes that are expected to revolutionize the ways in which we understand and construct complex physical...
Brain mapping via EEG activation is a useful tool of basic neuroscience, and has wide clinical applications as well. The mapping is achieved by means of Event Related Potentials (ERPs), task-related changes in EEG time series. The methodology of...
Two-phase flow -- Mathematical models. ; Gas dynamics -- Mathematical models. ; Kinetic theory of gases.
The kinetic theory based gas-dynamical computational method, due to (Prendergast and Xu, 1993: Xu and Prendergast, 1994) is generalized to two-phase flow computations. The Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic model is generalized to the case of two...
Quantum dots. Heterostructures. Metal oxide semiconductors -- Design and construction. Silicon oxide. Electron gas. Ohmic contacts. Microelectronics -- Technological innovations.
Solid-state approaches to quantum computing include quantum dot qubit implementations based on the Loss-DiVincenzo proposal. Prior work in GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) materials serves as a proving ground for device designs that can be...
Goldman and Turaev constructed a Lie bialgebra structure on the free Z-module generated by free homotopy classes of loops on an oriented surface. Turaev conjectured that the cobracket of A is zero if and only if A is a power of a simple class. Chas...
Two auroral sounding rocket case studies, one in the dayside and one in the nightside, explore aspects of poleward boundary aurora. The nightside sounding rocket, Cascades-2 was launched on 20 March 2009 at 11:04:00 UT from the Poker Flat Research...
A yearly breast contrast-MR scan is recommended to high-risk women because of MR's high sensitivity to breast tumors. However, breast contrast-MR yields a high number of false positives that lead to expensive and sometimes unnecessary biopsy...
Brain tissue mechanics are an important biomarker for neurological disorders, yet methods to obtain tissue information yield inconsistent conclusions. These techniques can be invasive or require excised tissue, where tissue function is altered from...
Thermodynamics, and the classic balance between entropy and enthalpy, provides a proverbial zoo of exotic phase behaviour that chemists can harness to create new materials out of simple liquids and polymers. The diversity of self-assembling...
Objectives: This dissertation comprises three essays on geographic variations in healthcare, and the association between utilization and health outcomes. I first explore associations between outpatient visits and Medicare beneficiaries'...
Si/SiGe quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (qubits) as a result of the reduced spin-orbit coupling as well as the Si isotopes with zero nuclear spin. Meanwhile qubit readout is a challenge related to...
This thesis presents data from ground camera observations of the aurora conducted from Alaska during the winters of 2005 through 2007. In conjunction with these camera observations, conjugate radar observations of the auroral ionosphere were...
We present new forensic tools that are capable of detecting traces of tampering in digital images without the use of watermarks or specialized hardware. These tools operate under the assumption that images contain natural properties from a variety...