Macrocyclic tetrapyrroles are essential to life. In nature, they play important roles in living organisms, such as oxygen transportation and photosynthesis. Pentynoic acids are versatile precursors for preparing pyrrolines and higher homologues....
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a recently developed imaging modality that measures and visualizes the mechanical properties of tissue in vivo. One of the essential reconstruction procedures in MRE is motion estimation. For dynamic...
The main research objective of this thesis is to address distributed target tracking for mobile sensor networks. Based on real-life limitations, we are particularly interested in mobile sensors with Limited Sensing Range (LSR). There are three...
Many of today's communication and imaging technologies share the common challenge of signal deterioration due to water's large absorption coefficient. As an example, it is water molecules that contaminate the fused silica of optical fibers and...
This thesis focuses on the emergence of universal dynamical scaling in quantum critical spin systems driven out of equilibrium, with emphasis on quench dynamics which involves isolated standard critical points, multi-critical points, and...
Measurement of the ionospheric thermal particle population bridges the two different communities of ground-based radar and space-based rocket studies, which have the common goal of characterizing heavy ion transport in the cusp/cleft region. We...
In this thesis we study 1=k-geodesics, those closed geodesics that minimize on any subinterval of length L=k, where L is the length of the geodesic. These curves arise as critical points of the uniform energy, a function introduced in Morse theory...
Si/SiGe quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (qubits) as a result of the reduced spin-orbit coupling as well as the Si isotopes with zero nuclear spin. Meanwhile qubit readout is a challenge related to...
We present results from a modeling effort of simple shock phenomena in the Cygnus Loop and Cassiopeia A. Using multi-epoch MDM observations of a small, isolated cloud in the southwest region of the Cygnus Loop, we measure the velocity of the...
The brain is a vastly interconnected information processing network. In humans, this network supports the rich mental space at the root of the imagination and enables many flexible cognitive abilities such as scientific and artistic creativity. How...
The ionosphere is an important source of plasma in the magnetosphere, especially during geomagnetic storms. While satellite data has confirmed this population of ions, their effect on the dynamics of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) system is not...
Robots -- Control systems -- Design and construction. Mobile robots. Robots -- Dynamics.
This thesis examines the issues of vehicle and information dynamics in the control of a multi-robot system using a radial-basis potential function controller. Distributed control of multi-robot systems requires each robot to communicate state...
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the most common bearing material in joint arthroplasty due to its biocompatibility, its wear resistance, and its mechanical toughness. Despite the favorable properties of UHMWPE and its success...
Multimedia systems -- Mathematical models. ; Information storage and retrieval systems. ; Machinery -- Alignment.
This thesis introduces multiple media correlation, a new technology for the automatic alignment of multiple media objects such as text, audio, and video. This research began with the question: what can be learned when multiple multimedia components...
We study motion planning problems, finding trajectories that connect two configurations of a system, from two different perspectives: optimality and survivability. For the problem of finding optimal trajectories, we provide a model in which the...
Space plasmas. ; Magnetopause. ; Solar wind. ; Magnetic flux. ; Plasma astrophysics.
Two types of two-dimensional (2-D), coherent (time-stationary) space plasma structures, described by one-fluid, magnetostatic and isotropic plasma theory, are examined. One is the internal structure of the Earth's magnetopause and the other is...
Breast -- Cancer -- Tomography. Near infrared spectroscopy. Breast -- Cancer -- Imaging. Breast -- Cancer -- Diagnosis.
Near-infrared (NIR) light provides potential for a new approach to non-invasive detection, diagnosis and clinical management of breast cancer. Using NIR spectroscopic imaging techniques, the physiological information about breast tissue composition...
Problem Statement Patient safety in the modern hospital is supported by multiple human and technological systems, and this type of high-risk/high-complexity domain requires multiple layers of protection against harm. This fault-tolerant approach is...
Motivated by quantum mechanics and geometric optics, it is a long-standing problem whether the length spectrum of a compact Riemannian manifold can be recovered from its Laplace spectrum. One route to proving that the length spectrum depends on the...
Two-phase flow -- Mathematical models. ; Gas dynamics -- Mathematical models. ; Kinetic theory of gases.
The kinetic theory based gas-dynamical computational method, due to (Prendergast and Xu, 1993: Xu and Prendergast, 1994) is generalized to two-phase flow computations. The Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic model is generalized to the case of two...
As the visual effect and movie industries are striving for realism and high fidelity images, physically based lighting, global illumination, realistic materials, and highly tessellated geometry are gradually accepted and used in movie and game...
There is a renewed interest in the study of the radiation belts with the recent launch of the Van Allen Probes satellites. The mechanisms that drive the global response of the radiation belts to geomagnetic storms are not yet well understood....