Protein complexes play vital roles in cellular processes within living organisms. They are formed by interactions between either different proteins (hetero-oligomers) or identical proteins (homo-oligomers). In order to understand the functions of...
For ordinary knots in R 3 , there are no degree one Vassiliev invariants. For virtual knots, however, the space of degree one Vassiliev invariants is infinite dimensional. We introduce a sequence of three degree one Vassiliev invariants of virtual...
Over the past decade, a pair of instructions called load-linked (LL) and store-conditional (SC) have emerged as the most suitable synchronization instructions for the design of lock-free algorithms. However, current architectures do not support...
Protein kinase C. Antigen presenting cells. Antigens -- Receptors. T cells -- Receptors. Major histocompatibility complex -- Genetic aspects. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes -- immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class II -- immunology. Receptors
Activation of CD4 T cells to exogenous antigens requires the formation and surface display of antigen-derived peptide-MHC class II complexes by antigen presentation cells. Acquisition of peptide by MHC class II is much studied, but the rules and...
Ice mechanics. Compressibility. Fracture mechanics. Strains and stresses. Brittleness.
This work describes the effect of triaxial compressive confinement on the strength of columnar S2 ice loaded under conditions leading to brittle failure. Cubes of columnar S2 ice were tested at -10 °C under triaxial (proportional) loading where...
The fluxes of radiation belt electrons are highly variable, due to a competition between various acceleration, loss, and transport processes. Studies of any of the processes are equally important. My study focuses on electron-EMIC (electromagnetic...
The discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in the 1958 was the first major discovery of the Space Age. There are two belts of energetic particles. The inner belt is very stable, but the outer belt is extremely variable, especially during...
Whistler-mode chorus waves have recently drawn tremendous attention as an important mechanism for controlling the energetic electron flux in Earth’s radiation belt. This dissertation aims to answer questions about whistler-mode chorus waves, such...
Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD...
Genetic and immunological tools have been used to study two protozoan parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii provides an excellent model for the study of protozoan parasite biology. Plasmodium falciparum causes...
An organism's long-term survival is critically dependent on its ability to protect itself from pathogenic microbial infections. The first line of defense against such infections is the branch of the immune response referred to as the innate immune...
We present new forensic tools that are capable of detecting traces of tampering in digital images without the use of watermarks or specialized hardware. These tools operate under the assumption that images contain natural properties from a variety...
This thesis constitutes the first steps in the author's program to investigate the question of when a homotopy of 2-cocycles ω = {ω[subscript t]}[subscript t∊[0,1]] on a locally compact Hausdorff groupoid Ɠ induces an isomorphism of the...
The focus of this thesis is the study of nuclearity and exactness for groupoid crossed product C*-algebras. In particular, we present generalizations of two well-known facts from group dynamical systems and crossed products to the groupoid setting....
Fc receptors. Dendritic cells. Immune recognition.
Three types of Fc receptors for IgG, FcyRI (CD64), FcyRII (CD32), and FcyRIII (CD 16) are expressed differentially on blood leukocytes. In particular, CD64 and CD32 are constitutively expressed on mononuclear phagocytes of the human myeloid system....
Snowmelt from seasonal snow covers can be significant in many environments of northern and alpine areas. Water flow and chemical transport resulting from snowmelt have been studied for an understanding of contributions to watersheds or catchments....
Face perception -- Physiological aspects. Face perception -- Social aspects. Sex differences (Psychology). Neuropsychology.
The general objective of the current thesis was to investigate the neural substrates underlying the perception of opposite-sex faces. Building on what is already known about the distributed network of brain areas supporting various dimensions of...
Nutrients play fundamental roles in biological systems, affecting plant growth and quality, community structure, and species interactions. Although the effects of nutrients on primary and secondary production have been well documented, their...
This thesis centers around a generalization of the classical discrete Fourier transform. We first present a general diagrammatic approach to the construction of efficient algorithms for computing the Fourier transform of a function on a finite...
'Orthogonal modular forms are algebraic modular forms arising from lattices in quadratic spaces. In this thesis, we define orthogonal modular forms, establish their basic properties, and then apply them to a case of ternary quadratic spaces to...
There are no Vassiliev invariants of degree one for classical knots. A. Henrich proved the existence of a sequence of three Vassiliev invariants of degree one for virtual knots. The invariants get stronger and stronger, and the final invariant is...
Van Allen radiation belts -- Mathematical models. Electrons -- Diffusion -- Mathematical models. Magnetohydrodynamic waves -- Mathematical models.
It is becoming increasingly important to understand the dynamics of radiation belt energetic particles given their potentially hazardous effects on satellites and our ever-increasing dependence on those satellites. There is a need to determine...
Type 4 prepilins and prepilin-like-proteins are secreted by a wide range of bacterial species and are required for a variety of functions including type 4 pilus (Tfp) formation, toxin and other enzyme secretion, gene transfer, and biofilm...
Rhizobium -- Physiology. Rhizobium -- Genetics. Plants -- Effect of iron on.
Iron is essential in the agriculturally important symbiosis between Bradyrhizobium japonicum and soybean. Studying iron uptake in B. japonicum presents unique challenges in that the organism is found in two very different environments, free living...
We describe a set of natural image statistics that are built upon two multi-scale image decompositions, the quadrature mirror filter pyramid decomposition and the local angular harmonic decomposition. These image statistics consist of first- and...
Given graded C *-algebras A and B , we define the notion of an admissible pair ([straight phi], D ) for A and B . Associated to an admissible pair ([straight phi], D ) is an equivalence class of asymptotic morphisms from A to B . Under certain...
I consider the problem of extending certain invariants of subsets of natural numbers to their equivalents for subsets of larger cardinals. The two specific questions I will address are the extension of the off-branch number [Special characters...
Proteins, the basic structural and functional building blocks of cellular machinery, evolve under significant constraint. Evolutionary pressures limit the acceptable variation and covariation of amino acids in a protein. As such, these evolutionary...
The control of gene expression is central to developmental biology, pattern formation, and phenotypic evolution. Enhancers are a class of regulatory DNAs that control when and where genes are turned ON or OFF. This highly regulated process is...