Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD...
This project focuses on the development of research tools and methods that are used to study the relationship between neural activity and subsequent hemodynamic responses in the human brain. This relationship, referred to as neurovascular coupling,...
This thesis presents two-fluid simulations of forced magnetic reconnection with finite electron inertia in two and three dimensional periodic systems. Reconnection in the system is driven by a spatially localized forcing function, added to the ion...
This thesis comprises two separate but related studies, dealing with two strongly interacting nanoscale systems on the border between the quantum and classical domains. In Part 1, we use a Born-Markov approximated master equation approach to study...
Medical imaging methods have become increasingly important in diagnosing diseases and assisting therapeutic treatment. In particular, early detection of breast cancer is considered as a critical factor in reducing the mortality rate of women....
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for use in biomedical applications as remote sensors of biophysical properties, thermal therapy agents, and detectors of specific biomolecules. Many approaches have been used to model magnetic...
Van Allen radiation belts -- Mathematical models. ; Magnetosphere -- Mathematical models. ; Magnetohydrodynamics -- Mathematical models.
The physics of geomagnetically-trapped radiation has been a topic of interest since the discovery of the Van Allen belts in 1958. As the energetic particles comprising these belts can pose a hazard to human activity in space, considerable effort...
Friction severely limits performance in precise positioning systems. This thesis investigates one possible approach to counter friction related performance losses, friction cancellation. In this method a friction observer is used to estimate...
This work studied the effects of silt-sized particles on the mechanical properties and microstructures of laboratory-grown granular ice from -20Â¬âˆžC to -2Â¬âˆžC. Experimental findings show that such particles significantly affect the...
Lowest order charged particle motion in the Earth''s magnetosphere can be explained using simple adiabatic theory. However, nonadiabatic theory is required to explain particle behavior in cases such as when the particle's gyroradius is large...
Eddy currents (Electric) -- Mathematical models. Electric generators -- Windings. Finite element method.
Magnetic components, such as transformers and inductors, are essential parts of most power electronics circuits. They usually are the largest components in the circuit, and also account for a large portion of the power loss. Reducing the volume of...
The radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) [1-3] has attracted significant interest as one of the fastest charge detectors known today. In this thesis, we show that by designing an on-chip superconducting LC matching network for the...
Second harmonic generation. ; Second harmonic generation -- Mathematical models. ; Glass -- Effect of infrared radiation on. ; Glass -- Electric properties.
Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) has emerged as a noninvasive, quantitative physical examination of the elastic properties of soft biological tissues including breast, liver, prostate, and brain. Implementation of constitutive relations that...
Many of today's communication and imaging technologies share the common challenge of signal deterioration due to water's large absorption coefficient. As an example, it is water molecules that contaminate the fused silica of optical fibers and...
Laser speckle monitoring is a way to measure the motion of an optically rough surface without making physical contact to that surface. Laser speckle is inherently sensitive to motion in the plane of the reflecting surface, which gives speckle...
The feasibility of a magnetic computation system was tested that consists of arranging thin film micromagnetic ring structures. Each ring is magnetized in a circular, vortex state in either the clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW) directions,...