Estradiol is a key regulator of immune protection in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Its concentration varies during the menstrual cycle, leading to changes in innate immune protection. In this thesis, I demonstrate the multiple levels at...
The human female reproductive tract (FRT) maintains a state of immune tolerance to spermatozoa and fetal allografts, while retaining the capacity to respond to a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiecy virus...
Magnetic resonance. ; Microwaves -- Physiological effect. ; Thermoelasticity. ; Neutron spin echoes. ; Microwave imaging in medicine. ; Imaging systems in medicine -- Design. ; Breast -- Magnetic resonance imaging.
Magnetic Resonance has been shown to detect tissue displacements generated by a mechanical stimulus or an ultrasound (US) field. Magnetic Resonance Microwave Absorption (MRMA) imaging uses MR to image microwave-induced thermoelastic waves as a...
Arabidopsis thaliana -- Genetics. Transcription factors. Iron -- Metabolism. Iron deficiency diseases in plants -- Genetic aspects.
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this...
We start by introducing avoidance coupling of Markov chains, with an overview of existing results. We then introduce and motivate a new notion, uniform coupling. We show that the only Markovian avoidance coupling on a cycle is of this type, and...
The Mixed Lineage Leukemia ( Mll ) gene is essential for embryonic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development but its role during adult hematopoiesis is unknown. Using a Mx1-Cre inducible knockout model, we demonstrate that Mll is essential for the...
Smartphones we carry everyday represent the first truly context-aware mobile device. By embedding specialized sensors and pushing AI into phones, it is now possible to continuously sense and infer people's physical activities, social interactions,...
Recent years have witnessed a new class of monitoring applications that need to continuously collect information from remote data sources. Those data sources, such as web click-streams, stock quotes, and sensor data, are often characterized as...
Prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) is a major product of COX-2 catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid in the endothelium and has been shown to be atheroprotective. PGI 2 signals though its G-coupled protein receptor (GPCR) the human Prostacyclin receptor...
Boundary integral methods have long been used to solve boundary value problems for elliptic partial differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients, since they have several numerical advantages over conventional volume discretization....
Multimodality imaging is becoming the standard of care for research and clinical studies. Such an approach is able to provide complementary information which can detect and characterize tumors. Advancing instrumentation for diffuse near-infrared...
Eddy currents (Electric) -- Mathematical models. Electric generators -- Windings. Finite element method.
Magnetic components, such as transformers and inductors, are essential parts of most power electronics circuits. They usually are the largest components in the circuit, and also account for a large portion of the power loss. Reducing the volume of...
A new algorithm is presented which uses maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and convex constraints to restore edge information in a robust and accurate way for microscope images. The convex constraints are spatially variant bounds on the image...
Si/SiGe quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (qubits) as a result of the reduced spin-orbit coupling as well as the Si isotopes with zero nuclear spin. Meanwhile qubit readout is a challenge related to...
Networks that model relationships in the real world have attracted much attention in the past few years. The "link prediction problem" plays a central role in the network area. In this thesis, we explore the link prediction problem in a...
In this thesis we develop a theory of Fourier analysis and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) for finite inverse semigroups. Our results generalize results in the theory of Fourier analysis for finite groups. There is a general method for generating...
Proteins, the basic structural and functional building blocks of cellular machinery, evolve under significant constraint. Evolutionary pressures limit the acceptable variation and covariation of amino acids in a protein. As such, these evolutionary...
In this thesis, we consider several problems relating to cyclic subgroups of the group [mathematical equation]. Each element of [mathematical equation] has a unique representative in one of the two intervals [mathematical equation] and...
Earlier work has suggested that various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders may result in characteristic spatial patterns in brain activation, potentially allowing their detection from maps of brain activity under different conditions....
The iodothyronine deiodinases, D1, D2, and D3, play a crucial role in determining the circulating and intracellular levels of active and inactive thyroid hormone (TH), and thus have a major effect on TH action during development and adulthood. The...
We expect wireless body-area networks of pervasive wearable devices will enable in situ health monitoring, personal assistance, entertainment personalization, and home automation. As these devices become ubiquitous, we also expect them to...
This project focuses on the development of research tools and methods that are used to study the relationship between neural activity and subsequent hemodynamic responses in the human brain. This relationship, referred to as neurovascular coupling,...
Internet -- Security measures. Public key infrastructure (Computer security). Digital signatures. Peer-to-peer architecture (Computer networks) -- Security measures.
The Internet has become a virtual place where people not only operate in isolation but also interact with other Internet users. Collaborative systems are becoming more popular. Applications now being introduced could provide better remote education...
In order to most effectively investigate protein structure and improve protein function, it is necessary to carefully plan appropriate experiments. The combinatorial number of possible experiment plans demands effective criteria and efficient...
Optical tomography. ; Near infrared spectroscopy. ; Image analysis -- Mathematical models. ; Imaging systems -- Image quality -- Mathematical models. ; Image reconstruction -- Mathematical models. ; Least squares. Breast -- Tomography.
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has the potential to become a non-invasive and non-ionizing diagnostic imaging technique for breast cancer imaging. DOT uses near-infrared (NIR) light to illuminate the breast, generally through the use of fiber...
The accelerated expansion of space in the Universe has been known for two decades. However, finding a plausible theory that describes this expansion is more difficult: Taking general relativity for granted requires us to stipulate the existence of...
Safety in transportation systems is a global concern with millions of road accidents happening worldwide every year. Despite sophisticated advancement in automotive design and accident serverity reduction technologies, traffic fatalities continue...
Structural control (Engineering). ; Smart structures -- Vibration. ; Strains and stresses -- Computer simulation. ; Automatic control -- Sensitivity. ; Feedback control systems.
This thesis investigates vibration-based damage identification problems in smart structures. Vibration-based damage metrics suffer from small sensitivity of modal properties to damage, thus making it difficult to detect, locate, and determine the...
In this thesis we review the methods for computation of cosmological correlations in the early universe known as the in-in formalism which are then applied to the problem of magnetogenesis from inflation. For this computation, a power-law single...