Natural arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs in communities worldwide, presenting a significant threat to public health. The processes that dictate arsenic partitioning between minerals and the aqueous phase are highly variable and...
Brain tissue mechanics are an important biomarker for neurological disorders, yet methods to obtain tissue information yield inconsistent conclusions. These techniques can be invasive or require excised tissue, where tissue function is altered from...
Radio relics are extended regions of synchrotron radio emission that have been found in the outskirts of a few dozen galaxy clusters. Relics are often associated with clusters undergoing merger activity. They are not associated optically with a...
In this thesis, we consider several problems relating to cyclic subgroups of the group [mathematical equation]. Each element of [mathematical equation] has a unique representative in one of the two intervals [mathematical equation] and...
Polynomials. Finite fields (Algebra). Algebraic functions. Number theory.
The ring of univariate polynomials over a finite field shares many foundational arithmetic properties with the ring of rational integers. This similarity makes it possible for many problems in elementary number theory to be translated 'through the...
Some biomacromolecules require a metal co-factor to stabilize their physiologically active three-dimensional structure. The fundamental thermodynamic values of the binding of metal ions, particularly Zn2+, to a set of biomacromolecules have been...
In a variety of applications spanning mobile devices, performance computing, and even renewable energy and automotive, power management and power delivery are an increasing bottleneck in reducing size and cost, improving reliability, and even...
Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD...
Phase transitions occur in such diverse and important systems as ferromagnets, liquid crystals and the early Universe. The dynamics of phase transitions such as these have been studied for decades, but the analytical models still need a great deal...
Evolutionary Computation (EC) is one of the most advanced computational techniques. It has been frequently and successfully used to find good solutions to many complicated optimization problems with limited computational resources. EC is the...
Structural control (Engineering). ; Smart structures -- Vibration. ; Strains and stresses -- Computer simulation. ; Automatic control -- Sensitivity. ; Feedback control systems.
This thesis investigates vibration-based damage identification problems in smart structures. Vibration-based damage metrics suffer from small sensitivity of modal properties to damage, thus making it difficult to detect, locate, and determine the...
Motivated by the goal of investigating the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe, a study of dynamical aspects of nonlinear field-theoretical systems is performed. Symmetric and asymmetric double-well potentials in the...
One of the important challenges facing image-guided neurosurgery is the fact that the brain deforms significantly over the course of an operation during open-cranial procedures. This results in a loss of registration between the brain and the...
Three-dimensional imaging in medicine -- Mathematical models. Diagnostic imaging -- Digital techniques. Brain -- Magnetic resonance imaging. Inverse problems (Differential equations).
An accurate registration between the preoperative images and the current surgical scene is critical to image-guided neurosurgery. However, during a neuro-surgical intervention, brain tissues shift and degrade the accuracy of the registration....
Nanocomposite materials containing both gold and cobalt were synthesized using block copolymers as agents for controlling spatial organization of the nanoparticles. The targeted polymers are polystyrene- block -poly(alkyne-functional)styrene...
T cells -- Receptors. Killer cells. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Cancer -- Immunotherapy.
Despite advances in standard treatment options such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. Moreover, many current therapies result in adverse effects. Therefore the...
Little is known about the emergence of life from nonliving precursors. A key missing- piece is the origin of homochirality: nearly all life is characterized by exclusively dextrorotary sugars and levorotary amino acids. The research presented in...
Laser speckle monitoring is a way to measure the motion of an optically rough surface without making physical contact to that surface. Laser speckle is inherently sensitive to motion in the plane of the reflecting surface, which gives speckle...
A polynomial is a product of distinct cyclotomic polynomials if and only if it is a divisor over [Special characters omitted.] [x ] of xn - 1 for some positive integer n. In this thesis, we will examine two natural questions concerning the divisors...
Solid tumors are frequently aneuploid and many display high rates of ongoing chromosome mis-segregation in a phenomenon called chromosomal instability (CIN). The most common cause of CIN is the persistence of aberrant kinetochore-microtubule (k-MT)...
In this thesis, the dynamics of long-lived, time-dependent, coherent field configurations, known as oscillons, are investigated in the presence of an expanding background. In a (1+1)-dimensional expanding spacetime, scalar-field oscillon lifetimes...
The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt pathways are key biological signaling pathways responsible for embryonic development, cellular proliferation, stem cell maintenance and self-renewal, and adult somatic tissue homeostasis. Because these pathways serve as...
It is never an easy task to make reasonable decisions on how people should act to preserve natural resources and to have various stakeholders agree with such decisions. This difficulty arises for a number of reasons, including: (1) the existence of...
Hypervelocity stars are stars ejected from the center of the Milky Way, never to return. Since first discovered in 2005, hypervelocity stars have greatly increased our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics at the Galactic Center. In this...
Strong evidence exists showing that stellar evolution models are unable to accurately predict the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. Observations of low-mass stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs) indicate that stellar models...
Aberrant activation of cyclin D-Cdk4/6 is commonly found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, we show that PD-0332991, a highly specific inhibitor for Cdk4 and Cdk6, exerted growth inhibitory effects on human PDAC cell lines....
A sample of 46 previously unidentified, intermediate- to high-redshift, near-infrared (NIR)-selected galaxy clusters have been discovered in the Andromeda catalog of the Oxford Dartmouth Thirty Degree Survey (ODTS). These clusters vary from low- to...