Earlier in our laboratory, a facile synthesis of the 2- and 3-nitroindoles was realized. These compounds showed promise as powerful intermediates in the synthesis of novel structures and natural products. The reactivity of 2- and 3-nitroindoles...
α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) function as paracrine and autocrine receptors throughout the body. Most studies have focused on their role in fast excitatory neuronal signaling, and learning and memory. In...
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for use in biomedical applications as remote sensors of biophysical properties, thermal therapy agents, and detectors of specific biomolecules. Many approaches have been used to model magnetic...
The accelerated expansion of space in the Universe has been known for two decades. However, finding a plausible theory that describes this expansion is more difficult: Taking general relativity for granted requires us to stipulate the existence of...
A metric structure on a set gives a concept of distance between any two elements of that set, and it induces a topology. In this thesis, we provide several ways to put a metric structure on the collection of CW complexes. We accomplish this by...
In this thesis, we consider several problems relating to cyclic subgroups of the group [mathematical equation]. Each element of [mathematical equation] has a unique representative in one of the two intervals [mathematical equation] and...
Two strains of mice were identified that possess differing cardiopulmonary responses to hypoxia. CF 1 mice acclimated poorly to chronic hypoxia as indicated by right ventricular hypertrophy, decreased PO 2 , increased [Hb], and increased mortality....
A double-acceleration stage linear time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) with Nd/YAG laser ablation cluster source was designed and constructed for cluster production, study and deposition. Cumulenic polycarbons SC n S ( n = 2-27) were...
Angiogenesis is part of the natural defense mechanism in brain against hypoxia and ischemia. Animal models and methods for the non-invasive investigation of cerebral angiogenesis are needed. This thesis addresses the hypothesis that steady state,...
CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) systems have been characterized as adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea, providing defense against mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage,...
Space plasmas. ; Magnetopause. ; Solar wind. ; Magnetic flux. ; Plasma astrophysics.
Two types of two-dimensional (2-D), coherent (time-stationary) space plasma structures, described by one-fluid, magnetostatic and isotropic plasma theory, are examined. One is the internal structure of the Earth's magnetopause and the other is...
The first chapter of this thesis encompasses progress towards the X-ray structure determination and drug design for the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) enzyme from the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii, along with another mutant...
In this thesis we look at several problems that lie in the intersection between combinatorial and multiplicative number theory. A common theme of many of these problems are estimates for and properties of the smooth numbers, those integers not...
Manifolds (Mathematics) Geodesics (Mathematics) Space and time.
We investigate weak and strong refocusing of light rays in a space-time and related concepts. A strongly causal space-time ( X^ n +1 , g ) is emphstrongly refocusing at x ∈ X if there is a point y ≠ x such that all null-geodesics through y pass...
Medical imaging methods have become increasingly important in diagnosing diseases and assisting therapeutic treatment. In particular, early detection of breast cancer is considered as a critical factor in reducing the mortality rate of women....
The fluxes of radiation belt electrons are highly variable, due to a competition between various acceleration, loss, and transport processes. Studies of any of the processes are equally important. My study focuses on electron-EMIC (electromagnetic...
Since their discovery in laboratory plasmas in the 1920s, Langmuir waves have been observed to be ubiquitous in plasma environments, particularly in space plasmas. From the greater solar wind to planetary foreshocks and the auroral ionosphere,...
In this thesis, we study the dynamics of magnetic flows on compact nilmanifolds. Magnetic flows are generalizations of geodesic flows. They model the motion of a particle of unit mass and unit charge in a smooth manifold M in the presence of a...
In the nervous system, neuronal communication relies critically on the function of membrane ion channels. One of these is the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC), which is essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials in...
Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD...
Hypercapnia -- Regulation. ; Carbon dioxide -- Physiological effect. ; Carbon dioxide in the body. ; Brown garden snail -- Respiration. ; Potassium channels.
After more than 150 years of studying the respiratory effects of hypercapnia, the intrinsic neuronal mechanism by which carbon dioxide (CO²) stimulates electrical excitability of respiratory neurons, and hence respiratory drive, is still...
Oligomers -- Structure -- Mathematical models. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Medical Term: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular.
Protein complexes play vital roles in the fundamental processes of life. In particular, homo-oligomers are involved in cell signaling, regulation, and transport. To make detailed studies of these symmetric proteins, they need to be discovered, and...
Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease is acquired by oral ingestion of contaminated water or food. In order for Vibrio cholerae to cause the disease cholera, it must produce two important...
NAD (Coenzyme) -- Metabolism.
Nicotinamide -- Mechanism of action.
Phosphatases.
Phosphates -- Metabolism -- Regulation.
Medical Term Nucleotidases -- metabolism.
Nicotinamide-beta-riboside.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is classically known as an essential co-enzyme for hydride transfer reactions in metabolism. More recently, it has been recognized as a consumed substrate of ADPribose transfer enzymes...
Partially ordered sets and permutations are combinatorial structures having vast applications in theoretical computer science. In this thesis, we study various computational and algorithmic problems related to these structures. The first chapter of...
The study of twin primes gives rise to several famously difficult problems in number theory--in fact, we still cannot definitively say whether there are infinitely many twin primes. In this work, we consider a related problem, namely: What is the...
'Orthogonal modular forms are algebraic modular forms arising from lattices in quadratic spaces. In this thesis, we define orthogonal modular forms, establish their basic properties, and then apply them to a case of ternary quadratic spaces to...