Classic studies demonstrated that when cells in different cell cycle phases are fused, nuclei cohabiting in a common cytoplasm synchronize their division cycles. Cytoplasmic factors, now known to be cyclin/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) complexes,...
Coding theory. Characters of groups. Error-correcting codes (Information theory). Polynomials.
We introduce vector-valued character theory, a higher dimensional generalization of character theory. We then use vector-valued characters to extend the MacWilliams equivalence theorem for linear codes to a class of additive codes, called...
The proliferation of mobile devices and other consumer products has greatly expanded the market for CMOS image sensors. This in turn has promoted a trend of continued improvement in image sensor performance, as companies seek to gain an advantage...
Automated trust negotiation is a new approach to access control and authentication for the open systems such as the Internet, where sensitive interactions sometimes occur among entities with no prior knowledge of each other. Trust negotiation...
Optical tomography. ; Near infrared spectroscopy. ; Image analysis -- Mathematical models. ; Imaging systems -- Image quality -- Mathematical models. ; Image reconstruction -- Mathematical models. ; Least squares. Breast -- Tomography.
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has the potential to become a non-invasive and non-ionizing diagnostic imaging technique for breast cancer imaging. DOT uses near-infrared (NIR) light to illuminate the breast, generally through the use of fiber...
In Chapter 2 we look at the distribution of permutation statistics in the context of pattern-avoiding permutations. The first part of this chapter deals with a recursively defined bijection of Robertson [37] between 123- and 132-avoiding...
For ordinary knots in R 3 , there are no degree one Vassiliev invariants. For virtual knots, however, the space of degree one Vassiliev invariants is infinite dimensional. We introduce a sequence of three degree one Vassiliev invariants of virtual...
Since their discovery in laboratory plasmas in the 1920s, Langmuir waves have been observed to be ubiquitous in plasma environments, particularly in space plasmas. From the greater solar wind to planetary foreshocks and the auroral ionosphere,...
The study of twin primes gives rise to several famously difficult problems in number theory--in fact, we still cannot definitively say whether there are infinitely many twin primes. In this work, we consider a related problem, namely: What is the...
Space plasmas. ; Magnetopause. ; Solar wind. ; Magnetic flux. ; Plasma astrophysics.
Two types of two-dimensional (2-D), coherent (time-stationary) space plasma structures, described by one-fluid, magnetostatic and isotropic plasma theory, are examined. One is the internal structure of the Earth's magnetopause and the other is...
Glutamic acid -- Receptors. Ion channels -- Molecular aspects. Ligand binding (Biochemistry). Biological transport -- Regulation. Receptors.
AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that mediate the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. AMPA-Rs are generally found in vivo as hetero-tetramers made up of a combination of the GluR1-GluR4 subunits....
Little is known about the emergence of life from nonliving precursors. A key missing- piece is the origin of homochirality: nearly all life is characterized by exclusively dextrorotary sugars and levorotary amino acids. The research presented in...
Bayesian nonparametric methods have become increasingly popular in machine learning for their ability to allow the data to determine model complexity. In particular, Bayesian nonparametric versions of common latent variable models can learn as...
I investigated the effects of two contemporary disturbances to soil systems: forest clearing in the northeastern U.S. and climate-driven plant succession in the Arctic. To test the effects of clear-cutting forests on mineral soil carbon (C)...
The brain is a vastly interconnected information processing network. In humans, this network supports the rich mental space at the root of the imagination and enables many flexible cognitive abilities such as scientific and artistic creativity. How...
How the genome is shaped directly influences how it is expressed. In fact, the genome is organized at many different levels, each imparting specific regulation over transcription. Fundamental principles regulating genome organization are poorly...
Robots -- Control systems. ; Robots -- Motion. ; Computer algorithms. ; Electronic data processing -- Distributed processing.
Self-reconfiguring robots are robots composed of many physically connected modules which can change their structural configuration to support multiple functionalities. We claim that self-reconfiguring robots are more versatile, extensible, and...
Eddy currents (Electric) -- Mathematical models. Electric generators -- Windings. Finite element method.
Magnetic components, such as transformers and inductors, are essential parts of most power electronics circuits. They usually are the largest components in the circuit, and also account for a large portion of the power loss. Reducing the volume of...
In this thesis we review the methods for computation of cosmological correlations in the early universe known as the in-in formalism which are then applied to the problem of magnetogenesis from inflation. For this computation, a power-law single...
Riemannian manifolds. Singularities (Mathematics). Laplacian operator. Spectral theory (Mathematics). Riemann surfaces. Curves on surfaces. Geometry
Historically, inverse spectral theory has been concerned with the relationship between the geometry and the spectrum of compact Riemannian manifolds, where spectrum means the eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplace operator as it acts on smooth...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered family of genes with short non-coding RNA transcripts of 18 to 25 nucleotides in length. lin-4 and let-7 , the founding members of the miRNA gene family, control the timing of developmental programs in the...
NAD (Coenzyme) -- Metabolism. Nicotinamide -- Mechanism of action. Genetic regulation. Nicotinamide-beta-riboside.
NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a consumed substrate of multiple signaling enzymes including the sirtuins, a family of protein lysine deacetylases shown to regulate longevity in a wide array of organisms. We have...
During our fieldwork with real-world organizations---including those in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), network configuration management, and the electrical power grid---we repeatedly noticed that security policies and related security artifacts...
We present aligned hierarchies, a novel solution to the dimension reduction problem, representing high-dimensional and noisy sequential data as a low-dimensional object that encodes relevant information. In this thesis, we motivate our presentation...
Coherent states. Quantum field theory. Nonlinear theories.
In this thesis we study the properties of time-dependent, nontopological configurations and their effect on the macroscopic properties of a system described by a nonlinear field theory. These structures seem to be ubiquitous in relativistic field...
Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be overcome using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. Visible blue dyes, fluorophores and radio-tracers are often used to locate the...
There are no Vassiliev invariants of degree one for classical knots. A. Henrich proved the existence of a sequence of three Vassiliev invariants of degree one for virtual knots. The invariants get stronger and stronger, and the final invariant is...
As the human population increases, it is imperative that we develop strategies to improve agricultural productivity to meet the growing demand for food, fuel and fiber. More than 2 billion people suffer from "hidden hunger" (a lack of essential...