We begin with a result on the refocussing of null geodesics in space-times. We show that all oriented refocussing 2-dimensional Lorentz manifolds are also strongly refocussing. We also introduce a theory of virtual Legendrian knots. We show that...
Understanding mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) accumulation and retention in forest soils is needed to reduce their negative impacts on human and wildlife health. In addition, mercury and lead can be used to characterize the role of soil in terrestrial...
Since their discovery in laboratory plasmas in the 1920s, Langmuir waves have been observed to be ubiquitous in plasma environments, particularly in space plasmas. From the greater solar wind to planetary foreshocks and the auroral ionosphere,...
Spectral theory is the subfield of differential geometry which provided the solution to Kac''s famous question, "Can you hear the shape of a drum?" That is, can we use the Laplace spectrum of a manifold to draw conclusions about its geometry or...
Riemannian manifolds. Singularities (Mathematics). Laplacian operator. Spectral theory (Mathematics). Riemann surfaces. Curves on surfaces. Geometry
Historically, inverse spectral theory has been concerned with the relationship between the geometry and the spectrum of compact Riemannian manifolds, where spectrum means the eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplace operator as it acts on smooth...
Yeast vacuole fusion requires 4 SNAREs, the Rab GTPase Ypt7p, vacuolar lipids, the SNARE complex disassembly machinery Sec17p and Sec18p, and the heterohexameric HOPS complex. Vacuole fusion occurs in stages: cis-SNARE complexes (bound to one...
Continual improvements to clinical breast imaging technologies have led to ever earlier detections and increasingly accurate localizations of female breast cancers. While these advancements have certainly improved the prognoses of many patients,...
This thesis presents data from ground camera observations of the aurora conducted from Alaska during the winters of 2005 through 2007. In conjunction with these camera observations, conjugate radar observations of the auroral ionosphere were...
Opinion dynamics is a complex procedure that entails a cognitive process when it deals with how a person integrates influential opinions to form revised opinion. Early research on opinion formation and social influence can be traced back to the...
Despite the array of targeted therapeutics that currently exist to combat breast cancer, disease progression leading to metastasis, and tumor recurrence still remains a significant clinical challenge. Efforts to identify novel pathways and...
The focus of this thesis is the study of nuclearity and exactness for groupoid crossed product C*-algebras. In particular, we present generalizations of two well-known facts from group dynamical systems and crossed products to the groupoid setting....
Molecular imaging of cancer features is a critical part of advancing better tools for oncology management and drug discovery, yet it is still evolving as a useful tool. Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography (FT) is one approach to molecular imaging, used...
In Chapter 2 we look at the distribution of permutation statistics in the context of pattern-avoiding permutations. The first part of this chapter deals with a recursively defined bijection of Robertson [37] between 123- and 132-avoiding...
Information retrieval -- Mathematical models. ; Electronic information resource searching. ; Computer algorithms. ; Decision making -- Data processing. ; Mathematical optimization.
This thesis presents a unified method for simultaneous solution of three problems in Information Retrieval--metasearch (the fusion of ranked lists returned by retrieval systems to elicit improved performance), efficient system evaluation (the...
Operating systems and low-level applications are usually written in languages like C and assembly, which provide access to low-level abstractions. These languages have unsafe type systems that allow many bugs to slip by programmers. For example, in...
In this thesis we study 1=k-geodesics, those closed geodesics that minimize on any subinterval of length L=k, where L is the length of the geodesic. These curves arise as critical points of the uniform energy, a function introduced in Morse theory...
'Orthogonal modular forms are algebraic modular forms arising from lattices in quadratic spaces. In this thesis, we define orthogonal modular forms, establish their basic properties, and then apply them to a case of ternary quadratic spaces to...
Immune response -- Regulation. Tretinoin. T cells. B cells. Plasma cells. Immunity.
Adaptive immunity licenses higher organisms to generate potent immune responses against foreign antigens. Two hallmarks of adaptive immunity are A) the ability of T and B cells to distinguish self from non-self and B) the ability to mount a...
CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) systems have been characterized as adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea, providing defense against mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage,...
Metals are ubiquitous in our environment. Through evolution, many biological processes have taken advantage of and have become dependent on specific metals for various biochemical functions. Metals can also be toxic to biological systems at...
The mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of Vibrio cholerae is a member of the family of type 4 pili. Type 4 pili expressed on the surface of a number of Gram-negative bacteria are often required for host colonization. MSHA is specifically...