We study the bijective combinatorics of reduced words. These are fundamental objects in the study of Coxeter groups. We restrict our focus to reduced words of permutations and signed permutations. Our results can all be situated within the context...
Casimir effect. Zero-point field. Electric conductivity. Quantum electrodynamics.
The Casimir force arises from an alteration of boundary condition in vacuum and is often regarded as a manifestation of quantum zero point energy. Considerable progress has been made in the last decade with an impressive achievement of experimental...
The focus of this thesis is the study of nuclearity and exactness for groupoid crossed product C*-algebras. In particular, we present generalizations of two well-known facts from group dynamical systems and crossed products to the groupoid setting....
Study 1 This systematic review aimed to synthesize the emerging body of work on the impact of employment, with a focus on prospective cohort studies. Researchers identified relevant studies for review via PubMed, expert referral, and reference...
Swarming motility is a flagella-dependent surface motility, and is also a form of bacterial group behavior. Similar to its counterpart biofilm formation, our understanding of swarming motility has been hampered by its complex set of requirements...
Robustness to genetic perturbations is a fundamental property of all living things. The genetic code is degenerate, RNA secondary structure is robust to sequence changes, and protein structure is robust to amino acid substitutions. Complex systems...
Partially ordered sets. ; Convex polytopes. ; Representations of groups.
This thesis deals with geometric representations of ordered sets. In a geometric representation, each element of the ordered set is assigned a geometric object, with two elements incomparable in the ordered set if and only if the corresponding...
Information retrieval -- Mathematical models. ; Electronic information resource searching. ; Computer algorithms. ; Decision making -- Data processing. ; Mathematical optimization.
This thesis presents a unified method for simultaneous solution of three problems in Information Retrieval--metasearch (the fusion of ranked lists returned by retrieval systems to elicit improved performance), efficient system evaluation (the...
Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into membrane-enclosed organelles. Genetic screens and reconstituted biochemical assays have revealed that intracellular protein trafficking is mediated by a conserved mechanism of vesicle budding, transport,...
Public key infrastructure (Computer security). ; Computer networks -- Security measures. ; Operating systems (Computers). ; Microcomputers.
In 1976, Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman demonstrated how public key cryptography could enable secure information exchange between parties that do not share secrets. In order for public key cryptography to work in modern distributed...
Clinical medicine -- Decision making. ; Medical informatics. ; Patient participation. ; Osteoarthritis -- Treatment. ; Knee -- Diseases -- Treatment. ; Decision Making. ; Decision Support Techniques.
Problem Statement. Effective patients' decision aids (PtDAs) help patients understand clinical information and reduce decisional conflict. PtDAs that also explicitly provide guidance through four """"Deliberative Steps"""" may achieve additional...
I investigate the kinematics and space densities of the local cataclysmic variable (CV) population. CVs are close binary star systems composed of a white dwarf that accretes matter from a less compact companion star in Roche lobe overflow....
Stigma (Social psychology). Aging -- Psychological aspects. Cognition -- Age factors. Older people -- Attitudes.
Extensive research on aging has demonstrated that normal aging debilitates executive function, a system that is critical for regulating stereotypes. However, there is a paucity of research on whether age-related declines to executive function...
Wireless communication systems. Computer networks. Routers (Computer networks).
A mesh network is a network of wireless routers that employ multi-hop routing and can be used to provide network access for mobile clients. Mobile mesh networks can be deployed rapidly to provide an alternate communication infrastructure for...
Polynomials. Finite fields (Algebra). Algebraic functions. Number theory.
The ring of univariate polynomials over a finite field shares many foundational arithmetic properties with the ring of rational integers. This similarity makes it possible for many problems in elementary number theory to be translated 'through the...
Mutualisms may facilitate coupled population expansion or decline if changes in either partner species lead to similar changes in the other species. However, few studies have measured how both species in a mutualism respond to changes in each...
For ordinary knots in R 3 , there are no degree one Vassiliev invariants. For virtual knots, however, the space of degree one Vassiliev invariants is infinite dimensional. We introduce a sequence of three degree one Vassiliev invariants of virtual...
Identifying the determinants of reproductive success in small-scale societies is critical for understanding how natural selection has shaped human evolution and behavior. The available evidence suggests that status-accruing behaviors such as...
When we want to know what others are thinking or feeling, we look to their face for clues. Affective neuroscience has usefully documented behavioral, psychophysiological and neural responses to the facial displays of others. Though this work...
Aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and birth defects in humans. At least 5% of all recognized pregnancies are aneuploid. Maternal meiosis is especially error-prone and the rate of chromosome missegregation increases exponentially...
'Orthogonal modular forms are algebraic modular forms arising from lattices in quadratic spaces. In this thesis, we define orthogonal modular forms, establish their basic properties, and then apply them to a case of ternary quadratic spaces to...
Immune response -- Regulation. Tretinoin. T cells. B cells. Plasma cells. Immunity.
Adaptive immunity licenses higher organisms to generate potent immune responses against foreign antigens. Two hallmarks of adaptive immunity are A) the ability of T and B cells to distinguish self from non-self and B) the ability to mount a...
In this thesis we develop a theory of Fourier analysis and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) for finite inverse semigroups. Our results generalize results in the theory of Fourier analysis for finite groups. There is a general method for generating...
Neuroanatomical studies have defined two relatively separate corticohippocampal processing streams that contribute substantially to medial temporal lobe function. Among the cortical regions providing significant input to these processing streams is...
We start by introducing avoidance coupling of Markov chains, with an overview of existing results. We then introduce and motivate a new notion, uniform coupling. We show that the only Markovian avoidance coupling on a cycle is of this type, and...
Modern distributed systems scatter sensors, storage, and computation throughout the environment. Ideally these devices communicate and share resources, but there is seldom motivation for a device''s owner to yield control to another user. We...
Information resources management -- Mathematical models. ; Database management -- Methodology. ; Change. ; World Wide Web.
Many modern information management tasks consist of an observer that must maintain current knowledge of a collection of changing information. The goal of this observer is to maintain acceptably accurate state estimates given limited observation...
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) that manages inter-domain routing on the Internet lacks security. Protective measures using public key cryptography introduce complexities and costs. To support authentication and other security functionality in...
Three-dimensional imaging in medicine -- Mathematical models. ; Stereoencephalotomy.
In the past, clinicians skilled at image-guided neurosurgery have relied solely on pre-operative scans for their navigational information. Often in the course of surgery, tissue is purposely retracted/resected or inadvertently moved resulting in a...
Calanus finmarchicus -- Georges Bank. ; Calanus finmarchicus -- Maine Gulf of. ; Calanus finmarchicus -- North Atlantic Ocean.
Calanus finmarchicus, a kind of marine zooplankton, plays an important ecological role throughout the North Atlantic. Striking seasonal variations exist in its abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank region. On the Bank in...
Arabidopsis thaliana -- Genetics. Transcription factors. Iron -- Metabolism. Iron deficiency diseases in plants -- Genetic aspects.
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the model organisms used to study the developmental process of biofilm formation in Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, a genetic approach {O'Toole, 1998 #404} was taken to study biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa and...
Pervasive computing leads to an increased integration between the real world and the computational world, and many applications in pervasive computing adapt to the user's context, such as the location of the user and relevant devices, the presence...
We begin with a presentation of the current state of Poljak and Turzik's conjecture that a matroid is sticky if and only if it is modular as described in [5] and [1]. We show that all graphic, cographic, and regular matroids must satisfy the...
Human behavior -- Mathematical models. ; Web usage mining. ; Internet users.
Whom we e-mail, where we browse, what we purchase, and the things we search for on the World Wide Web all leave identifiable traces of who we are as individuals. In today's technology focused landscape, cyberspace represents the new environment in...
In the late 1960s, Ihara began work that led to the Ihara zeta function, a zeta function which is defined on a finite graph. This function is an interesting graph invariant which gives information on expansion properties of the graph. It also...
Auroras -- Alaska -- Observations. Magnetospheric currents. Electric currents. Magnetic fields.
Auroral downward-current regions balance the upward currents of visible auroral arcs. FAST satellite data show conclusive evidence to confirm that these downward current regions (DCR) contain positive potential structures with diverging DC electric...
Medical care -- Decision making. Health attitudes. Prostate -- Cancer -- Treatment -- Decision making. Prostate -- Cancer -- Patients -- Attitudes. Uncertainty. Video recording in medicine.
This dissertation used two studies to evaluate the appropriateness of a theoretical model exploring the relationships between screening/treatment beliefs and intending to be screened or treated for prostate cancer (P-CA). Study One examined...
Cosmic acceleration could be an effect of a ""dark energy"" fluid pervading the Universe. It could also be an indication that general relativity is not the correct theory of gravity at cosmological length scales. Unfortunately, observations of the...
Older people -- Medical care -- United States -- Evaluation. Chronically ill -- Medical care -- United States -- Evaluation. Ambulatory medical care -- United States -- Evaluation.
Objective . To examine how continuity is related to quality measures for chronically ill elderly patients; to the specialty and caseload of the physicians they predominantly visit; and to the regional context of where their ambulatory care is...
Indole alkaloids -- Synthesis. Ring formation (Chemistry). Radicals (Chemistry).
A novel radical cyclization of 2-bromoindoles was examined, generating a series of hexahydropyrrolo[3,4- b ]indoles in fair yield. This process involved the generation of a variety of indole-3-carboxamides followed by the introduction of bromine at...
This thesis focuses on the emergence of universal dynamical scaling in quantum critical spin systems driven out of equilibrium, with emphasis on quench dynamics which involves isolated standard critical points, multi-critical points, and...
Microglia -- Effect of drugs on.
Morphine -- Physiological effect.
Purines -- Receptors.
Drug tolerance.
Cell culture -- Technique.
Medical Term Receptors, Purinergic P2 -- physiology.
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition which exacts severe emotional, physical and economic tolls on the millions of people who suffer from it worldwide. Opioids are a mainstay of acute, postoperative and cancer pain therapy, however, their use...
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) facilitates communication between parts of the Internet by determining paths by which data can get from one network to any other. Just as IP is used ubiquitously as an addressing scheme, BGP is used ubiquitously...